Daniel Crommelin & Sons:
Provider of International Investment Funds


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18th century International Investment Funds and the Debt of the United States
French and Dutch investors were the major foreign financiers of the American Revolution. In addition to international loans, foreign investors also invested in the domestic debt of the United States through investment trusts that were formed to speculate on the future credit of the country. Depicted is a Treasury certificate made out to Daniel Crommelin and Sons - a Dutch merchant bank that organized a number of these trusts.
(Source of the two U.S. Loan images below: K. Geert Rouwenhorst Yale School of Management)


U.S., 1792 (Front)


U.S., 1792 (Back)

General Loans


Dutch Bank Loan, 1798 (Front)


Dutch Bank Loan, 1798 (Back)


1798 (Front)


1798 (Back)